Eutelsat 10B | Falcon 9 Block 5

Uncategorized
Featured image credit: SpaceX
Lift Off Time
(Subject to change)

November 21, 2022 – 02:57 UTC
November 20, 2022 – 21:57 EST

Mission Name

Eutelsat 10B, a communication satellite

Launch Provider
(What rocket company is launching it?)

SpaceX

Customer
(Who’s paying for this?)

Eutelsat

Rocket

Falcon 9 Block 5, B1049-11; 432.96 day turnaround time

Launch Location

Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40), Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, Florida, USA

Payload mass

~4,500 kg (~10,000 lb) launch mass

Where are the satellites going?

Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) at 10º East (Initial orbit: super-synchronous Geostationary Transfer Orbit)

Will they be attempting to recover the first stage?

No

Where will the first stage land?

The booster will splash down in the Atlantic Ocean

Will they be attempting to recover the fairings?

The fairing halves will be recovered ~700 km downrange by Bob or Doug

Are these fairings new?

TBD

How’s the weather looking?

The weather is currently 30% GO for launch (as of November 19, 2022 13:00 UTC)

This will be the:

1st Falcon 9 Block 5 launch with a white interstage
– 186th Falcon 9 launch
– 123rd Falcon 9 flight with a flight-proven booster
– 127th re-flight of a booster
– 49th re-flight of a booster in 2022
– 53rd launch for SpaceX in 2022 (a record)
– 104th SpaceX launch from 
SLC-40
– 163rd orbital launch attempt of 2022

Where to watch

Official Livestream

What’s This All Mean?

SpaceX is set to launch the Eutelsat 10B satellite into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) for Eutelsat atop its Falcon 9 Block 5. The vehicle will lift off from Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40) at the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, in Florida, USA. The second stage of Falcon 9 will place the Eutelsat 10B satellite into a super-synchronous GTO, which means that its apogee with be above the GEO belt (35,786 km). This allows for the spacecraft to burn less on-board fuel to raise its orbit to the GEO belt since less delta-V is needed; the amount of dV needed to take a spacecraft from its GTO to GEO is given in the GTO number: for example, on the Galaxy 31 & 32 mission, the satellites were placed into GTO-1611, which means it needs 1,611 m/s of dV to reach GEO.

For this reason, the Falcon 9 first stage will be expended on this mission. The first stage booster, B1049, donated its interstage to B1052 (which was converted from a Falcon Heavy minus-Y side core to a Falcon 9) since 49’s last flight. Missing an interstage, SpaceX decided to put an old Falcon 9 v1.2 Full Thrust non-block 5 interstage on the booster, which are white. For this reason, this will be the first (and possibly only) Falcon 9 Block 5 launch with a white interstage.

An interesting note is that the interstage mounting hardware was changed between older block 5 boosters (boosters before B1056) and newer block 5 boosters. The newer interstage design features fewer pins holding the interstage on, reducing the amount of work needed to convert a Falcon 9 to a Falcon Heavy side booster.

Old interstage design (top) and new interstage design (bottom). (Credit: Teslarati)

On top of this, due to the booster being expended, its grid fins, landing legs, and RCS thrusters have been removed.

What Is Eutelsat 10B?

As the name implies, Eutelsat 10B is a replacement for the Eutelsat 10A satellite in the 10-degree East slot. Eutelsat 10A, which is set to reach its end of life at the end of 2023, currently provides communication services to maritime and air traffic throughout both the Americas and parts of Asia.

With a launch mass of ~4,500 kg, Eutelsat 10B will carry along two pairs of secondary high-throughput satellites (HTS), that will extend the reach of the main satellite. Each of these payloads has 35 Gigabits per second of bandwidth; one will be placed above the North Atlantic corridor, Europe, the Mediterranean basin, and the Middle East, while the other one will be placed to extend service through the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, and the Indian ocean.

The main satellite is based on the Spacebus-Neo-200 satellite bus and will be equipped with 36 Ku-band transponders and 20 C-band transponders. The satellite is all-electric, using plasma thrusters to control the payload once in orbit. The propulsion system–along with the rest of the satellite–is powered by two large deployable solar arrays and batteries to power the satellite throughout the orbital night.

Artist’s rendering of the Eutelsat 10B satellite (Credit: TAS)

What Is Falcon 9 Block 5?

The Falcon 9 Block 5 is SpaceX’s partially reusable two-stage medium-lift launch vehicle. The vehicle consists of a reusable first stage, an expendable second stage, and, when in payload configuration, a pair of reusable fairing halves.

First Stage

The Falcon 9 first stage contains 9 Merlin 1D+ sea level engines. Each engine uses an open gas generator cycle and runs on RP-1 and liquid oxygen (LOx). Each engine produces 845 kN of thrust at sea level, with a specific impulse (ISP) of 285 seconds, and 934 kN in a vacuum with an ISP of 313 seconds. Due to the powerful nature of the engine, and the large amount of them, the Falcon 9 first stage is able to lose an engine right off the pad, or up to two later in flight, and be able to successfully place the payload into orbit.

The Merlin engines are ignited by triethylaluminum and triethylborane (TEA-TEB), which instantaneously burst into flames when mixed in the presence of oxygen. During static fire and launch the TEA-TEB is provided by the ground service equipment. However, as the Falcon 9 first stage is able to propulsively land, three of the Merlin engines (E1, E5, and E9) contain TEA-TEB canisters to relight for the boost back, reentry, and landing burns.

Second Stage

The Falcon 9 second stage is the only expendable part of the Falcon 9. It contains a singular MVacD engine that produces 992 kN of thrust and an ISP of 348 seconds. The second stage is capable of doing several burns, allowing the Falcon 9 to put payloads in several different orbits.

For missions with many burns and/or long coasts between burns, the second stage is able to be equipped with a mission extension package. When the second stage has this package it has a grey strip, which helps keep the RP-1 warm, an increased number of composite-overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) for pressurization control, and additional TEA-TEB.

Falcon 9 Block 5 launching on the Starlink V1.0 L27 mission (Credit: SpaceX)

Falcon 9 Booster

The booster supporting the Eutelsat 10B mission is B1049, which has supported ten previous flights. Hence, its designation for this mission is B1049-11.

B1049’s missionsLaunch Date (UTC)Turn Around Time (Days)Telstar 18VSeptember 10, 2018 04:45N/AIridium NEXT-8January 11, 2019 15:31123.45Starlink V0.9 L1May 24, 2019 02:30132.46Starlink V1.0 L2January 7, 2020 02:19227.99Starlink V1.0 L7June 4, 2020 01:25148.96Starlink V1.0 L10August 18, 2020 14:3175.55Starlink V1.0 L15November 25, 2020 02:1398.49Starlink V1.0 L17March 4, 2021 08:2499.26Starlink V1.0 L25May 4, 2021 19:0561.44Starlink Group 2-1September 14, 2021 03:55132.37Eutelsat 10BNovember 21, 2022 02:57432.96

Falcon 9 landing on Of Course I Still Love You after launching Bob and Doug (Credit: SpaceX)

Falcon 9 Fairings

The Falcon 9’s fairing consists of two dissimilar reusable halves. The first half (the half that faces away from the transport erector) is called the active half, and houses the pneumatics for the separation system. The other fairing half is called the passive half. As the name implies, this half plays a purely passive role in the fairing separation process, as it relies on the pneumatics from the active half.

Both fairing halves are equipped with cold gas thrusters and a parafoil which are used to softly touch down the fairing half in the ocean. SpaceX used to attempt to catch the fairing halves, however, at the end of 2020 this program was canceled due to safety risks and a low success rate. On Eutelsat 10B, SpaceX will attempt to recover the fairing halves from the water with their recovery vessel Doug.

In 2021, SpaceX started flying a new version of the Falcon 9 fairing. The new “upgraded” version has vents only at the top of each fairing half, by the gap between the halves, whereas the old version had vents placed spread equidistantly around the base of the fairing. Moving the vents decreases the chance of water getting into the fairing, making the chance of a successful scoop significantly higher.

An active Falcon 9 fairing half (Credit: Greg Scott)

Falcon 9 passive fairing half (Credit: Greg Scott)

Half of the fairing being taken off Go. Navigator. (Credit: Lupi)

A passive fairing half being unloaded from Shelia Bordelon after the Starlink V1.0 L22 mission (Credit: Kyle M)

Eutelsat 10B Countdown

All times are approximate

HR/MIN/SECEVENT00:38:00SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for propellant load00:35:00RP-1 (rocket grade kerosene) loading underway00:35:001st stage LOX (liquid oxygen) loading underway00:16:002nd stage LOX loading underway00:07:00Falcon 9 begins engine chill prior to launch00:01:00Command flight computer to begin final prelaunch checks00:01:00Propellant tank pressurization to flight pressure begins00:00:45SpaceX Launch Director verifies go for launch00:00:03Engine controller commands engine ignition sequence to start00:00:00Falcon 9 liftoff

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